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Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is the foundation of treating diabetes and is an essential measure for the prevention of phase and control phase in the natural course of diabetes. In 2002, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) proposed the evidence-based diabetes nutrition supply standard and and established a classification standard for scientific evidence ( 20 ). ADA indicated that patients with GDM who adhered to personalized nutrition therapy from a registered dietitian were more likely to achieve treatment goals. The pathophysiological features of GDM are unique and require close management; if poorly managed, maternal hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis and high blood sugar, in addition to other complications, may occur ( 21 ). The high blood sugar levels often observed in patients with GDM can lead to fetal hyperglycemia, while GDM-induced hyperosmolarity is typically treated with diuretics, resulting in increased urination; consequently, sugar levels are high in the amniotic fluid, which in turn stimulates the secretion of amniotic membrane and may eventually lead to excessive amniotic fluid ( 22 ). Additionally, hyperglycemia stimulates fetal insulin secretion. Excessive insulin levels may reduce fetus alveolar surface material, resulting in delayed fetal lung maturity and therefore increasing the incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome ( 23 ). Furthermore, hyperinsulinemia persists in the newborn following birth and removal from the environment of the mother's hyperglycemia; thus, the newborn is prone to neonatal hypoglycemia ( 24 ). The present study involved a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 133 patients with a GDM diagnosis of <12 weeks. The general characteristics and dietary intakes of patients with GDM in each group of the trial were similar, which demonstrated that these patient charcteristics did not differ prior to intervention.

Steroid kolu patlayan adam

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